December 3, 2016
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Census Bureau Reports Income Declines in Minority Households Across the Nation

 INCOME, POVERTY AND HEALTH INSURANCE
COVERAGE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2008

The U.S. Census Bureau announced today that real median household income
in the United States fell 3.6 percent between 2007 and 2008, from $52,163
to $50,303. This breaks a string of three years of annual income increases
and coincides with the recession that started in December 2007.

The nation’s official poverty rate in 2008 was 13.2 percent, up from
12.5 percent in 2007. There were 39.8 million people in poverty in 2008, up
from 37.3 million in 2007.

Meanwhile, the number of people without health insurance coverage rose
from 45.7 million in 2007 to 46.3 million in 2008, while the percentage
remained unchanged at 15.4 percent.

These findings are contained in the report Income, Poverty, and Health
Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008. The following results for
the nation were compiled from information collected in the 2009 Current
Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC):

Income

Race and Hispanic Origin (Race data refer to people reporting a single
race only. Hispanics can be of any race.)

-- Between 2007 and 2008, the real median income of non-Hispanic white
households declined 2.6 percent (to $55,530); for blacks, it declined 2.8
percent (to $34,218); for Asians, it declined 4.4 percent (to $65,637); and
for Hispanics, it declined 5.6 percent (to $37,913). Except for the
difference between the declines for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic
households, all other differences between the declines were not
statistically significant.

Regions

-- Between 2007 and 2008, real median household income declined in the
South by 4.9 percent (to $45,590), declined in the Midwest by 4.0 percent
(to $50,112) and declined in the West by 2.0 percent (to $55,085). Income
in the Northeast was statistically unchanged ($54,346). The apparent
differences in the declines in median household income between the South
and Midwest, and the Midwest and West were not statistically significant.
The apparent difference between the median household incomes for the West
and Northeast was not statistically significant.

Nativity

-- Native- and foreign-born households, including those maintained by a
naturalized citizen, had declines in real median income between 2007 and
2008. Income was statistically unchanged for households maintained by a
noncitizen. The decline for native-born households was 3.5 percent; the
decline for foreign-born households was 5.3 percent; and the decline for
those maintained by a naturalized citizen was 4.8 percent. The apparent
differences among the declines in median income for native-born,
foreign-born and naturalized citizen households were not statistically
significant.

Earnings

-- In 2008, the earnings of women who worked full time, year-round was 77
percent of that for corresponding men, not statistically different from the
2007 ratio.

-- The real median earnings of men who worked full time, year-round
declined by 1.0 percent between 2007 and 2008, from $46,846 to $46,367. For
women, the corresponding drop was 1.9 percent, from $36,451 to $35,745.

Income Inequality

-- Income inequality was statistically unchanged between 2007 and 2008, as
measured by shares of aggregate household income by quintiles and the Gini
index. The Gini index was 0.466 in 2008. (The Gini index is a measure of
household income inequality; 0 represents perfect income equality and 1
perfect inequality.)

Poverty

Overview

-- The increase in the poverty rate between 2007 and 2008 was the first
statistically significant annual increase since 2004. The 2008 poverty rate
(13.2 percent) was the highest since 1997.

-- In 2008, the family poverty rate and the number of families in poverty
were 10.3 percent and 8.1 million, respectively, up from 9.8 percent and
7.6 million in 2007.

-- For married-couple families, both the poverty rate and the number in
poverty increased — 5.5 percent (3.3 million) in 2008, up from 4.9 percent
(2.8 million) in 2007. Both measures, however, showed no statistical change
in 2008 for female-householder-with-no-husband-present families (28.7
percent and 4.2 million) and for male-householder-no wife-present families
(13.8 percent and 723,000).

Thresholds

-- As defined by the Office of Management and Budget and updated for
inflation using the Consumer Price Index, the weighted average poverty
threshold for a family of four in 2008 was $22,025; for a family of three,
$17,163; for a family of two, $14,051; and for unrelated individuals,
$10,991.

Race and Hispanic Origin (Race data refer to people reporting a single
race only. Hispanics can be of any race.)

-- In 2008, the poverty rate increased for non-Hispanic whites (8.6 percent
in 2008, up from 8.2 percent in 2007), Asians (11.8 percent in 2008, up
from 10.2 percent in 2007) and Hispanics (23.2 percent in 2008, up from
21.5 percent in 2007). The poverty rate in 2008 was statistically unchanged
for blacks (24.7 percent).

Age

-- The poverty rate increased for children younger than 18 (19.0 percent in
2008, up from 18.0 percent in 2007) and people 18 to 64 (11.7 percent in
2008, up from 10.9 percent in 2007), while it remained statistically
unchanged for people 65 and older (9.7 percent).

-- Similar to the patterns observed for the poverty rate in 2008, the
number of people in poverty increased for children younger than 18 (14.1
million in 2008, up from 13.3 million in 2007) and people 18 to 64 (22.1
million in 2008, up from 20.4 million in 2007) but remained statistically
unchanged for seniors 65 and older (3.7 million).

Nativity

-- Among the native-born population, 12.6 percent (33.3 million) were in
poverty in 2008, up from 11.9 percent (31.1 million) in 2007.

-- Among the foreign-born population, the poverty rate and the number in
poverty increased to 17.8 percent and 6.5 million in 2008, up from 16.5
percent and 6.2 million, respectively, in 2007. The poverty rate in 2008
for naturalized citizens, 10.2 percent, was statistically unchanged from
2007, while the poverty rate for those who were not U.S. citizens rose to
23.3 percent in 2008, up from 21.3 percent in 2007.

Regions

-- The Midwest and West experienced increases in both their poverty rate
and the number in poverty. The Midwest poverty rate increased to 12.4
percent (8.1 million) in 2008, up from 11.1 percent (7.2 million) in 2007,
and the West poverty rate increased to 13.5 percent (9.6 million) in 2008,
up from 12.0 percent (8.4 million) in 2007. The poverty rates for the
Northeast (11.6 percent) and the South (14.3 percent) were both
statistically unchanged.

Health Insurance Coverage

Overview

-- The number of people with health insurance increased from 253.4 million
in 2007 to 255.1 million in 2008.

-- The number of people without health insurance coverage rose from 45.7
million in 2007 to 46.3 million in 2008.

-- Between 2007 and 2008, the number of people covered by private health
insurance decreased from 202.0 million to 201.0 million, while the number
covered by government health insurance climbed from 83.0 million to 87.4
million. The number covered by employment-based health insurance declined
from 177.4 million to 176.3 million.

-- The number of uninsured children declined from 8.1 million (11.0
percent) in 2007 to 7.3 million (9.9 percent) in 2008. Both the uninsured
rate and number of uninsured children are the lowest since 1987, the first
year that comparable health insurance data were collected.

-- Although the uninsured rate for children in poverty declined from 17.6
percent in 2007 to 15.7 percent in 2008, children in poverty were more
likely to be uninsured than all children.

Race and Hispanic Origin (Race data refer to those reporting a single
race only. Hispanics can be of any race.)

-- The uninsured rate and number of uninsured for non-Hispanic whites
increased in 2008 to 10.8 percent and 21.3 million, from 10.4 percent and
20.5 million in 2007. The uninsured rate and number of uninsured for blacks
in 2008, meanwhile, were not statistically different from 2007, at 19.1
percent and 7.3 million. The uninsured rate for Asians in 2008 rose to 17.6
percent, up from 16.8 percent.

-- The percentage of uninsured Hispanics decreased to 30.7 percent in 2008,
from 32.1 percent in 2007. The number of uninsured Hispanics was not
statistically different in 2008, at 14.6 million.

-- Based on a three-year average (2006-2008), 31.7 percent of people who
reported American Indian and Alaska Native as their race were without
coverage. The three-year average uninsured rate for Native Hawaiians and
Other Pacific Islanders was 18.5 percent.

Nativity

-- The uninsured rates for the native-born and foreign-born populations
were statistically unchanged at 12.9 percent and 33.5 percent,
respectively, in 2008. Among the foreign-born population, the uninsured
rates for both naturalized citizens (18.0 percent) and noncitizens (44.7
percent) were statistically unchanged.

Regions

At 11.6 percent, the Northeast and the Midwest had lower uninsured
rates in 2008 than the West (17.4 percent) and the South (18.2
percent). The 2008 rates for the Northeast, Midwest and South were
not statistically different from their respective 2007 rates. The
uninsured rate for the West increased to 17.4 percent in 2008, up
from 16.9 percent in 2007.

The CPS ASEC is subject to sampling and nonsampling errors. All comparisons
made in the report have been tested and found to be statistically
significant at the 90 percent confidence level, unless otherwise noted.

For additional information on the source of the data and accuracy of the
estimates for the CPS, visit <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_236sa.pdf
>.



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